西班牙痕迹：毕加索 艺术皇冠上的宝石By Alasdair Fotheringham, 5 December 2010
阿拉斯代尔·佛斯林汉姆 2010年12月5日The Spanish economy may be dangerously close to meltdown this week but one area at least – prostitution – appears to be doing very nicely, thank you.
西班牙的经济岌岌可危，本周可能濒临崩溃。但是，至少有一个行业看起来似乎运作得不错——色情业。万幸。"Don Jose – cleanliness; Don Jose – discretion; Don Jose – security, and a patrolled car park," half-whispers the calm female voice on a Granada radio station throughout the day. It is an advertisement for the city's biggest and best-known brothel.
“唐·乔斯——清洁；唐·乔斯——谨慎；唐·乔斯——安全，并且在停车场设有巡逻，”全天都有一个女性的声音在格兰纳达广播台低语。这是宣传该市最大、最广为人知的色情场所的一个广告。Cut to a Saturday night inside the said Don Jose "club" – three storeys high, flashing neon lights, two bars, a VIP zone and some 70 sex workers, clad in everything from nightgowns to G-strings to the very briefest of shorts – and, according to local regulars, business is booming. "The place is heaving every weekend," comments "Alvaro", an experienced brothel-goer in his late forties. "These days in the afternoons and early evenings, you'll get businessmen who've told their wives they're at meetings. Then later on, there are hordes of 18- or 19-year-olds, just there to have a laugh and, if they want, have a quick lay as well."
在 周六的夜场进入到上文谈及的唐·乔斯“俱乐部”，那是一座三层楼，闪烁着霓虹灯，拥有两个酒吧间，一个VIP专区和大约70名性工作者，他们穿着格式服 装：睡衣、丁字裤或者很短的短裤。据当地的常客说，生意变得越来越好。“这个地方每到周末就很繁忙，”一个年近五十的惯客“Alvaro”如此评价，“ 最近，下午和傍晚都会有生意人上门，他们告诉自己的妻子在开会。将来，会有大群的十八九岁的小伙子来这里找乐子，并且匆忙地性交。”This is no exaggeration. Prostitution is so popular (and socially accepted) in Spain that a United Nations study reports that 39 per cent of all Spanish men have used a prostitute's services at least once. A Spanish Health Ministry survey in 2009 put the percentage of one-time prostitute users at 32 per cent: lower than the UN figure, perhaps, but far higher than the 14 per cent in liberal-minded Holland, or in Britain, where the figure is reported to oscillate between 5 and 10 per cent. And that was just those men willing to admit it.
这 样的描述一点都不夸张。色情活动中西班牙非常盛行（并且被社会所接受）。一份联合国的研究报告显示，西班牙有39%的男性至少有过一次嫖娼的经历。 2009年，西班牙卫生部的调查把这一数据降低为32%，虽然低于联合国的数字，但是仍然远高于其他国家：思想开放的荷兰14%的男人承认曾经买春；在英 国，这个数字一般在5%-10%之间。而且，该数据仅仅包括了愿意承认自己有过性交易的那部分男性。To meet this vast demand, an estimated 300,000 prostitutes are working in Spain – everywhere from clubs in town centres to industrial estates, to lonely country roads to roadside bars, the last often recognisable by gigantic neon signs of champagne bottles or shapely females, flashing away in the darkness. And recently, on the French border, Club Paradise opened with 180 sex workers, making it the biggest brothel in Europe.
为 了满足如此巨大的需求，西班牙约有30万性工作者，他们广泛分布于从市中心的酒吧到工业园区，乃至人迹罕至的乡村公路或者路边酒吧的广大区域。这种酒吧通 常用香槟酒瓶或者性感的女性形状的巨大霓虹灯标记，天黑的时候可以在很远的地方看到闪烁的灯光。最近，在临近法国的边界上新开了一家叫做“天堂俱乐部”的 性交易场所，拥有180名性工作者，规模居欧洲之最。As the clubs get larger, the clients get younger. According to studies carried out for the Spanish Association for the Social Reintegration of Female Prostitutes (Apramp), back in 1998 the typical client was a 40-year-old married male. By 2005, however, the average age had dropped to 30 – and it appears to be getting lower. "The kids are going because they see it as a quick way of getting what would take a lot longer to happen if they went to a disco," Alvaro says. "You've got the money, you choose the woman you want and it's all over and done with." His own logic is even more brutal: "I go when I don't have a girlfriend."
随 着俱乐部规模逐渐变大，西班牙嫖客年龄还呈现出越来越小的趋势。"西班牙女性性工作者协会"的调查报告显示，1998年，西班牙嫖客大都是40岁以上的已 婚男性；2005年，嫖客平均年龄已下降到30岁，而现在还有继续低龄化的趋势。“年轻人去那种场所，因为他们觉得在这里泄欲比去舞厅更便 捷，”Alvaro认为，“交完钱，你就可以得到自己想要的女人，一切就这么简单。”而他自己的逻辑则更为冷酷：“我没有女朋友的时候就会去买春。”There is no single reason, though, why prostitution should be so popular in Spain. Historically it has long been seen as an expression of individual freedom – first as a pressure valve for the strait-laced family-focused environment of the Franco years (when prostitution was quietly ignored), and then consolidating itself after the dictator died. Then, as now, brothels would be listed in the yellow pages, albeit under the coy title of "nightclubs", and nobody batted an eyelid. Among the young men of the Spanish provinces, even in the late 1980s, sleeping with a prostitute was no longer something you did as way of losing your virginity: it could actually be seen as cool.
色 情业为什么能在西班牙如此盛行？答案并不单一。从历史的角度看，西班牙一直在强调个人的人身自由：最初，在独裁者佛朗哥统治时期被作为对古板家庭造成的环 境压力的减压阀（那时候色情业是非常受蔑视的）；后来，佛朗哥去世以后，人身自由的观念得到了巩固。直到现在，色情场所的联系方式仍然出现在黄页中，虽然 被列在“夜间俱乐部”这样的隐晦标题下，但是没有人会忽视它的存在。甚至是在80年代末期，西班牙辖区的青年男子都已经不再把嫖娼看作失贞的行为，相反， 他们觉得这样的行为很时髦。In the 1990s, magazines such as Interviú, which prides itself on its investigative journalism, would think nothing of publishing "erotic guides to Spain". Even today, all-male business dinners can end up in the local "club". "Every now and then I have to take clients," says one accountant who did not want to be named, "but it's OK. They take credit cards."
在90年代，Interviú之类以调查性自居的杂志都不会考虑出版一本“西班牙性爱指南”。就算现在，只有男性的商务晚餐结束后，大家都会去当地的“俱乐部”。“每次我都必须带客户去嫖娼，”一位不愿透露姓名的会计说，“但是没问题，他们会为此买单。”If the roots of Spain's acceptance of prostitution ultimately lie with the sexual and personal repression of the Franco years, the most curious hangover from the sexual revolution is that, even today, most "'serious" newspapers carry adverts for prostitutes. In the Madrid issue of one major national daily, 75 or 80 per cent of small ads are for prostitutes, offering all manner of services with prices from ¤20 to ¤200. Plans to eliminate the so-called "contact ads" appear to be on a kind of permanent hold, partly justified by the precarious economic state of Spain's print media.
如 果说西班牙人包容色情业的根源是佛朗哥时期对性和人身的压抑，那么，性革命最为神奇的残余成果使得“正经”的报纸都包含了色情业的广告。在马德里发行的一 份重要的国家级日报里，75%-80%的小广告都是宣传色情业的，收费通常在20到200比索（西班牙货币单位）之间。受到现阶段西班牙纸质媒体经济困境 的部分影响，要消除这些“公关广告”貌似需要很长一段时间。However, the underbelly of a trade which is legal in Spain but not recognised as an actual job is far from pleasant, with human trafficking constantly rearing its ugly head. In 2009 alone, Spain's Ministry of the Interior detected 17 international crime rings involved in sexual trafficking in Spain. Between January and April of this year, according to the newspaper El País, the authorities identified 493 cases of women sold into sexual slavery.
尽 管性交易在西班牙是合法的，但这类活动的缺陷在于性工作者这一职业并没有被西班牙人所认可，因此滋生了长期的人口贩卖。仅仅在2009年，西班牙内务部就 查到有17个国际犯罪组织涉足了西班牙的性工作者人口交易。今年一月到四月之间，西班牙破获了493例妇女被迫沦为性奴的案件。Yet that makes no difference, it seems, to the clients who pour through the doors of the brothels. "There is a clear lack of awareness as to what is going on," says Marta Gonzalez, a spokeswomen for the Madrid-based NGO Proyecto Esperanza, which helps women who have been victims of trafficking. "Clients don't realise that many of these women could be victims of trafficking. Lots of people would be more wary if the prostitutes were clearly under lock and key or had obviously been subject to physical abuse. They don't realise that all it takes is a death threat to their families back in Nigeria or Brazil, and the woman is already being coerced into prostitution."
但 对于不断涌入性交易场所大门的嫖客们来说，他们是感觉不到任何异常的。“嫖客们不会清楚地意识到发生着什么，”马德里的非政府组织"Proyecto Esperanza"发言人Marta Gonzalez透露，"他们根本不知道这些性工作者可能是人口贩卖活动的受害者。如果知悉这些性工作者是在被囚禁或者遭受着生理上的虐待的时候，很多嫖 客可能会更谨慎地去对待性交易这件事。他们不知道，很多来自尼日利亚或巴西的性工作者都是因为人贩子威胁杀死她们的家人，才沦落从事性服务业"。The laws in Spain are of little help either, with prostitution currently a permitted activity – but with no labour rights. "They're already frequently leading a double life or are considered social outcasts and often are in dire need of money," said a Spanish Red Cross social worker running a healthcare programme for prostitutes. "Add the lack of legal rights, and they're a clear target for exploitation."
色 情业现在是合法活动，对此，西班牙的法律几乎于事无补，只不过性工作者不想有劳动者权益保障。“性工作者已经习惯了双重生活或者已经接受了社会的漠视，他 们通常都很缺钱，”一名西班牙红十字会的社工透露，他们正在实施一项针对性工作者的健康保障计划，“加之他们的合法权益缺少保证，性工作者明显地成为了被 保护的目标。”On top of that there's Spain's recession. "Economically the women I'm dealing with are at the end of their tether, and the lack of other employment possibilities makes everybody more nervous about keeping clients. In the process they put themselves at risk, too. They'll be more willing to accept it when a client doesn't want to use a condom, for example, to be sure they get him to sleep with them."
此 外，经济萧条也是色情业繁荣的一大原因。那位社工谈到：“我所救助的很多女性都因为缺钱而被束缚在色情行业中，缺少别的职业选择使她们更加紧张地想要留住 自己的客户。在从事色情服务的过程中，她们同样面临着危机。比如，她们不愿意遇上拒绝使用避孕套的嫖客，尽管仍然会和他们进行性交易。”When prostitution and trafficking overlap, the legal situation grows even more discouraging. "Glitches in the legislation mean that an identical crime is punished less severely here than, say, in Germany." Ms Gonzalez says. "Forcing someone to prostitute themselves in Spain gets from two to four years in prison here, while human trafficking gets five to eight. But because the latter charge often can't be proved effectively because of poor legislation, the criminal gets the lower sentence."
当 性交易和人口交易勾结在一起，法律形势就更加严峻了。“法律上的一个小纰漏就可能导致同等的罪行在西班牙所受到的惩罚不如其他地方严厉，比如德 国，”Gonzalez女士说，“强迫别人卖淫在西班牙会被叛2到4年徒刑，而人口贩子的刑期是5到8年。但是，因为后一项罪名通常因为宽松的法律而很难 实行，所以罪犯的量刑就减轻了。Meanwhile, Spain's sex trade continues to flourish. And, in one way, it is literally more visible than ever: recently, in an attempt to cut the number of road accidents, the police in Lerida, Catalunya, issued the prostitutes working in out-of-town lay-bys with fluorescent waistcoats.